All About Scales 
 Scale Mate 
About Guitar Scales
12 Tone System
Atonal & Pantonal Structures
Augmented Scales
Chord Spelling Table
Chromatic Scales
Cycle Of Fifths
Diatonic Scales
Diminished Scales
Dominant Scales
Major & Minor Scales
Major & Minor Chromatic Scales
Major & Minor Pentatonic Scales
Pentatonic Scales
Pentatonic Chromatic Scales
Polytonal Music
Scale Modes
Table Of Intervals
Table Of Keys
Table Of Scales
Tone Scales


The variety of scales, modes and technical information discussed above should place the guitarist in a position to begin working with new material straight away. Ability in using this material as the basis for self-expression or creative application will vary among players, and to a large extent depend upon the level of musicianship or music making experience one has. So, whether simple little tunes or complex passages, work toward developing a good ear, a sound knowledge of harmony and approach music with an inventive step. The art of improvisation is limited only to ones imagination and for those interested in learning more about this art.

Have no fear of trying something new regardless of the facts. All sounds have a purpose, emotive, all be that they may. Listen to and learn as much music as you can, rework it with an open mind and enjoy all the pleasures that music has to offer. It is our hope that this work will provide a solid foundation upon which you can build.

Kind Regards and good luck with your musical endeavours.


Scales as with intervals are of simple (to the octave) or compound (outside the octave) construction. As a general rule, a musical scale is defined as a fixed interval or fixed pitch progressive arrangement of four or more notes or tones in an ascending or descending ordered system of music to or beyond the octave. A half scale consists of 4 (tetrachord), half or half + 1 of the notes or tones of a parent scale and include arpeggios, and progressions of less than four notes or tones spanning less than, up to or greater than the octave are lineal or non-lineal scale or arpeggio segments. Intervals refer to the difference in pitch or tonal distance between two notes and are classified according to the number of tones and or semitones within the interval. Shown below is a table of simple and compound intervals from the root C. Intervals outside the octave eg. 9th & 10th etc., are referred to as compound intervals and correspond to simple intervals in terms of their being the octave equivalents of simple interval tones eg. C-D is a second (Major 2nd) while C to the D8va. (an octave higher) is a 9th. For more information on intervals see Table of Intervals

In a scale, the intervals from one note to the next are measured according to their tonal distance eg. C-Dflat is a semitone (1 fret), C-D is a tone (2 frets), C-D# is a tone and a half (3 frets), C-E is 2 tones (4 frets) etc., and are constructed from a root or tonic and relative to one another. This system of related notes then, can be further measured and transcribed using the corresponding sequence of symbols T (for tone) and S (for semitone) etc., or alternatively W (for whole tone) and H (for half tone) and so on. Using this method of scale construction a major scale is transcribed "T T S T T T S" or alternatively "W W H W W W H" (regardless of the root or tonic). A minor scale is transcribed "T S T T S T T" or alternatively "W H W W H W W" (regardless of the root or tonic). This method of scale construction may be clearly viewed in both the table of keys and table of scales below and where, the distance between 1&2, 2&3, 4&5, 5&6, 6&7 are tones (T) and 3&4 and 7&1 are semitones (S).


Using the system of Equal Temperament ie. The division of an octaveinto 12 semitones where the intervals have the same value in all keys.
Scales as with chords, are spelt (see Table of Scales) and grouped into family types. Shown below is a listing of scales in their respective family groups with root related chords they may be played against.

MAJOR SCALE & Chord              DOMINANT SCALE & Chord              MINOR SCALE & Chord

Major              Maj.        Dom. 7 (no 3rd)      Dom7 sus 4    Pure Minor (Aeolian)  m
Ionian Mode        Maj. 7      Dom. 7 (Mixolydian)  Dom7          Dorian Mode           m7
Lydian Mode        Maj. 7      Hindu                Dom7 -6       Melodic (ascending)   Maj. 7 
Harmonic Major     Maj. 7 -6   Whole Tone           Dom7+         Melodic (descending)  m
Lydian Aug.        Maj. 7+5    Diminished           Dom7 -9       Minor Pentatonic      m   
Augmented          Aug./Maj    Dim. Whole Tone      Dom7 -9       Harmonic Minor        m~7/M7  
Blues Scale        Maj.        Blues Scale          Dom7          Blues Scale           m
Maj. Pentatonic    Maj.                                           Phrygian Mode         m7
Jazz Melodic Major Maj.                                           Locrian Mode ( Dim)  m7 -5
Gipsy Major        Maj.       Lydian Dominant      Dom7 +4        Major Phrygian        m
(Lydian Dominant).                                                Diminished (8 tone)   m
Mixed Major        Maj.                                           Jazz Melodic Minor    Maj.
                                                                  Gipsy Minor           m/m~7

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August 1, 2007